Sem categoria

# zinc oxide nanoparticles review

Colloids Surf. In this article, at first we have discussed the various synthesis methods of ZnONPs and secondly its biomedical applications. Also, Jones et al. They recognized a substantial damage to E. coli with disorganized cell walls by SEM images which showed the changed morphology, a consequence of intracellular content leakage. J. Appl. Zinc-blende structure is metastable and can be stabilized via growth techniques. 5(12), 1368–1373 (2011), N. Padmavathy, R. Vijayaraghavan, Enhanced bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles—an antimicrobial study. It is also described as a function of the surface area in contact with the microorganisms [46]. 2b). Sci. Additionally, Xie et al. Dennery, H.J. Thus, these species are found on the outer surface of the bacteria, by contrast, H2O2 molecules are able to pass through the bacterial cell wall, subsequently leading to injuries and destroy, and finally triggering cell death [40, 88]. USA.gov. Anticancer potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles against cervical carcinoma cells synthesized via biogenic route using aqueous extract of Gracilaria edulis. Epub 2017 Aug 26. Also, images of the NPs interacted with the packaging materials can be obtained by SEM and TEM. Appl. Chem. FEMS Microbiol. This topic is regarded as a powerful application forecast and marketable significance. Wilson, A.T. Abraham, M. Sevanan, Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against human pathogens. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.01.014, J. Sawai, E. Kawada, F. Kanou, H. Igarashi, A. Hashimoto, T. Kokugan, M. Shimizu, Detection of active oxygen generated from ceramic powders having antibacterial activity. by J.A.T. Abstract. doi:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2013.01.004, J. Ma, J. Liu, Y. Bao, Z. Zhu, X. Wang, J. Zhang, Synthesis of large-scale uniform mulberry-like ZnO particles with microwave hydrothermal method and its antibacterial property. Nanoscale Res. [91] found that the action of ZnO-NPs on C. jejuni has stimulated morphology disorder, intracellular components outflow, and considerable release in gene expression of oxidative stress of C. jejuni. Modified procedures along with the standard methods are also used by a large body of researchers. [32] have synthesized flower-shaped ZnO nanostructures which were produced via solution process at low temperature (90 °C) using the zinc acetate dihydrate and NaOH. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2012.07.033, J.M. As it is known that ZnO absorbs UV light, it has an excellent photocatalytic property, thus it is believed that UV stimulated the ZnO in the mixture to release electrons, which leads to produce more oxygen within the mixture. J. Biomed. doi:10.1128/AEM.69.7.4278-4281.2003, K.R. Langmuir 26(4), 2774–2778 (2009). Limbach, A. Bruinink, W.J. ZnO–O2 had exhibited the highest growth inhibition capability toward E. coli than ZnO-AP. This result confirms the potent antibacterial effect of ZnO-NPs toward this particular bacterial species at much reduced concentrations, and this finding is highly beneficial in food packaging. A goal of this review is to set a well-built reference for scientists interested in antibacterial activities along with their functional applications by considering nanotechnology principles as it relates to the nanobiological toxicity of ZnO-NPs. Request PDF | A review: zinc oxide nanoparticles – friends or enemies? Review on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity and Toxicity Mechanism View 0 peer reviews of Review on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity and Toxicity Mechanism on Publons COVID-19 : add an open review or score for a COVID-19 paper now to ensure the latest research gets the extra scrutiny it needs. J. Microbiol. Many microorganisms exist in the range from … Beest, R. Rijk, T. Sipiläinen-Malm, P.P. These characteristics enable ZnO to have remarkable applications in diverse fields [20]. In this way, Zhang et al. Mater. S. aureus plating for colony count [13]. by B. Valdez (InTech Europe, Rijeka, 2012), pp. Field emission scanning electron microscope, Electron spectroscopy imaging, by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, S. Sahoo, Socio-ethical issues and nanotechnology Neurotoxicology 46: 145–154. [13]. J. Nanomater. C 112(31), 11859–11864 (2008). These crystal structures are illustrated in (Fig. 3, Dalian, Liaoning, USA, 29–31 July 2011 (IEEE, 2011), pp. Ana Stanković, S. Marković, S. Dimitrijević, S.D. This distinct property allows their possible applications in many fields such as biosensors, nanomedicine, and bionanotechnology [4]. Lee, Is the effect of surface modifying molecules on antibacterial activity universal for a given material? Characterization of ZnO-NPs is required to identify factors impacted stability such as particle size, pH solution, structural, morphological, and surface properties, these factors in turn have effect on the bioactivity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being utilized in an increasing number of fields and commercial applications. Epub 2018 Oct 22. 2. The latter are capable to enter the membrane where they either damage or kill the bacteria. Whereas gram-negative bacteria wall is composed of two cell membranes, an outer membrane and a plasma membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan [44] with a thickness of 7–8 nm. It is considered as the synthesis, characterization, and exploration of materials in the nanometer region (1–100 nm). Bakhori, A. Sirelkhatim, D. Mohamad, H. Hasan, A. Seeni, R.A. Rahman, Antibacterial responses of zinc oxide structures against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. Adverse effects; Anticancer; Drug delivery; Synthesis, zinc oxide nanoparticles. The importance of zinc as a trace metal in the human body has long been overlooked. Bradley, L. Mädler, Use of a rapid cytotoxicity screening approach to engineer a safer zinc oxide nanoparticle through iron doping. Health. doi:10.1109/NSTSI.2011.6111808, L.K. Nanomed. Res. Consequently, the cytoplasm contains proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, salts, ions, and water (∼80 %). A special focus has been given on a range of remarkable toxicity mechanisms that underlie this bacterial activity, mainly reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and Zn2+ release. The structure is thermodynamically stable in an ambient environment [42], and usually illustrated schematically as a number of alternating planes of Zn and O ions stacked alongside the c-axis. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.10.008, M.H. Thus, the mechanism related to the formation of ROS in bacteria and cell line was clearly examined by the measurement of ROS level using DCFH-DA [111]. Finally, its side effects to vital body organs with mechanism via different exposure routes, the future direction of the ZnONPs research and application are also discussed. Environ. Mater. Sun, Role of the dissolved zinc ion and reactive oxygen species in cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. It is one of the cheap materials in cosmetic industry, nanofertilizers, and electrical devices and also a suitable agent for bioimaging and targeted drug and gene delivery and an e… Biomaterials 32(7), 1906–1914 (2011). Langmuir 18(17), 6679–6686 (2002). Res. doi:10.1063/1.4752469, N. Yahya, H. Daud, N.A. Furthermore, the authors used SEM analyses to examine the morphological changes. Takhistov, J. Miltz, Intelligent packaging: concepts and applications. Particular emphasize was given to bactericidal and bacteriostatic mechanisms with focus on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), OH− (hydroxyl radicals), and O2 Bioelectron. Yoon, Developing a testing method for antimicrobial efficacy on TiO2 photocatalytic products. Djurišić, F.C. Hwang, B. Li, X. Huang, H. Wang, The characterization of various ZnO nanostructures using field-emission SEM. Res. C 119(3), 1433–1441 (2015). The TGA has been continuously monitoring the emerging scientific literature in this area and working cooperatively with international regulatory agencies to ensure that ap… They concluded that ZnO-NPs synthesized by wet chemical method are potential antibacterial agents in food preservation and packaging. Bioanal. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.09.030, D. Guo, H. Bi, B. Liu, Q. Wu, D. Wag, Y. Cui, Reactive oxygen species-induced cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rat retinal ganglion cells. Bacteria are generally characterized by a cell membrane, cell wall, and cytoplasm. 95–128. The inhibition accounts for variations in cell physiology, cell wall constitution, and the metabolism [93, 94]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: A comprehensive review on its synthesis, anticancer and drug delivery applications as well as health risks Adv Colloid Interface Sci . Such reactive species are superoxide anion (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxide (OH−). Trends Food Sci. Wang Y, Zhang Y, Guo Y, Lu J, Veeraraghavan VP, Mohan SK, Wang C, Yu X. J Photochem Photobiol B. [57] have shown that the release of Zn2+ ions was a logical cause of ZnO toxicity toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae bacteria (these bacteria is highly considered in food processing). doi:10.1109/ICEOE.2011.6013309, M. Nirmala, M.G. This was most likely attributed to the higher surface defects induced by annealing. J. Biomed. doi:10.1021/pr0504079, H. Meruvu, M. Vangalapati, S.C. Chippada, S.R. The inclusion of antibacterial agents assists either bacteriostatic or bactericidal materials to gradually diffuse into the food matrix. As such, in the above mentioned study [36], the addition of PVA, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and poly(α, γ, l-glutamic acid) (PGA; see Abbreviations) as stabilizers enhanced ZnO morphology and size for the antibacterial activity. It is also obvious that ZnO-NPs activity was concentration dependent. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.30789, J.T. [74] by testing ZnO-NPs toward E. coli. HHS Finally, Wang et al. doi:10.1016/S0167-7012(03)00037-X, S.O. Issues of aggregation, re-precipitation, settling, or non-dissolution impede the synthesis processes. 5(10), 1561–1573 (2005). Generally, it has been observed from the intensive studies held, that the antibacterial activity of ZnO can be verified under UV light as well as in the dark to inhibit the bacterial growth. doi:10.1016/j.nano.2006.12.001, L. Liu, J. Yang, J. Xie, Z. Luo, J. Jiang, Y.Y. ZnONPs show cancer cell specific toxicity via the pH-dependent (low pH) dissolution into Zn2+ ions, which generate reactive oxygen species and induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This composition contributes in the electrical conductivity of the cellular structure. Extensive discussion was centered on the antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs coupled with a number of influenced factors impacting the activity. The cytoplasm, a jelly-like fluid that fills a cell, involves all the cellular components except the nucleus. Some most common bacterial foodborne pathogens are C. jejuni, C. perfringens (is the cafeteria germ), Salmonella spp., and E. coli O157:H7. J. Photochem. While others, such as Yamamoto [51] enhanced the antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs by modulating within the procedure. A 165(1), 103–107 (2004). A parallel study was made by Jalal et al. Ann, S. Mahmud, S.K.M. These modified features allow the NPs to interact in a unique manner with cell biomolecules and thus facilitate the physical transfer of NPs into the inner cellular structures [6]. Mishra, J. Musarrat, A.A. Al-Khedhairy, Reactive oxygen species mediated bacterial biofilm inhibition via zinc oxide nanoparticles and their statistical determination. B 94(1), 22–31 (2010). Though, Pasquet et al. Nair, Photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanopowders synthesized by DC thermal plasma. doi:10.1016/j.nano.2010.10.001, J. Sawai, Quantitative evaluation of antibacterial activities of metallic oxide powders (ZnO, MgO and CaO) by conductimetric assay. Stefanakos, D.Y. Reddy et al. Biol. 90(21), 213902 (2007). Zinc oxide nanoparticles mitigated the effects of NaCl, and in this application of lower concentrations (15 mg L-1) was more effective than a higher concentration (30 mg L-1). g Growth curves through optical density (OD600 nm) measurements. Chevalier, J. Pelletier, E. Couval, D. Bouvier, M.-A. Thus, longer durations of UVA exposure expected to lead to greater growth inhibition. [8] fulfilled their antibacterial tests using four types of NPs (TiO2, MgO, CuO, and CeO2) which have not considerably inhibited the bacteria growth (more than 10 mM). In spite of its simple chemical formula, ZnO has very rich defect chemistry [96], which is associated with its antimicrobial activity. Photobiol. Phys. Once ZnO-NPs are in the growth media, they will carry on releasing peroxides covering the entire surfaces of the dead bacteria. The bactericidal activity of ZnO-NPs (8–10 nm size) against E. coli DH5α and S. aureus was examined and found to be effective at 80 and 100 µg mL−1. Sci. It is anticipated that this review may be able to enhance further research into novel methodological characterization and clinical correlations in this topic. 42, 4419–4421 (2007). Afr. At this level, the properties and functions of living and anthropogenic systems are defined [2]. J. We thank NOR Lab staff, at School of Physics for the characterization of ZnO-NPs. B Antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs towards: Enteritidis and E. coli O157:H7, adapted from Xie et al. Eng. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) had been in recent studies due to its large bandwidth and high exciton binding energy and it has potential applications like antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antioxidant and optic properties. Colloids Surf. H2O2 generation mainly relies on the surface of ZnO-NPs to yield additional active molecules. Yu, H. Sun, P.K.-H. Tam, J.-F. Chiu, C.-M. Che, Proteomic analysis of the mode of antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles. Nanomed. Sukon Phanichphantand, Antimicrobial nanomaterials in It is characterized by a direct wide band gap (3.3 eV) in the near-UV spectrum, a high excitonic binding energy (60 meV) at room temperature [19–23], and a natural n-type electrical conductivity [24]. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.11.081, R. Karmali, A. Bartakke, V. Borker, K. Rane, Bactericidal action of N doped ZnO in sunlight. Each nanostructure has specific structural, optical, electrical, and physicochemical properties [29], permitting remarkable applications. Meanwhile, Reddy et al. For example, the conductometric assay measures the bacterial metabolism-induced alterations in the electrical conductivity of growth media [48, 49]. This technology is capable of providing miscellaneous novel applications that range from innovative fabric compounds, food processing, and agricultural production to sophisticated medicinal techniques . Nanotechnol. Also, under controlled growth conditions, the surface morphology is determined by the surface activity. They emerged with the result that ZnO-NPs have strong antibacterial activity toward these human pathogens. The first part of this paper presents the most important methods of preparation of ZnO divided into metallurgical and chemical methods. For example, the result of the current–voltage measurements (IV) showed significant increase in surface conductance (7-fold for ZnO-rod and 5-fold for ZnO-plate) due to a decrease in the depletion layer upon UVA illumination. In this regards, a number of researchers considered this difficulty by using certain additives that have no significant effect in the antibacterial activity. J. Proteome Res. S. aureus is well known of causing contamination in hospital implants leading to serious infections [39]. Then the mixture in the 96-well plate were exposed to UVA light (390 nm, 1.8 mW cm−2) for 20 min, and consequently OD measurements were held hourly up to 8 h, and then after 24 h to determine the percentage growth inhibition. Med. J. Environ. Silva, P. Santiago-Silva, P.J.P Espitia, M.P.J.C. Phys. doi:10.1007/s11837-008-0044-9, R. Wahab, S. Ansari, Y. Kim, H. Seo, G. Kim, G. Khang, H.-S. Shin, Low temperature solution synthesis and characterization of ZnO nano-flowers. The generated active species are capable to penetrate into the cells, thus inhibit or kill microorganisms. Moreover, the UV illumination increased the percentage inhibition of bacteria (Fig. 28(6), 595–598 (1998), H. Hu, W. Zhang, Y. Qiao, X. Jiang, X. Liu, C. Ding, Antibacterial activity and increased bone marrow stem cell functions of Zn-incorporated TiO2 coatings on titanium. IET Nanobiotechnol. Epub 2019 May 31. Additionally, Brayner et al. Usually, antibacterial tests are done in aqueous media or cell culture media. 199(3), 389–397 (2010). 9(3), 479–489 (2007). Express 2(12), 3321–3333 (2011). [62] referred some of the effect to a direct liaison between NPs and the membrane as well as to ROS generation nearby bacteria membrane. 30(1), 56–69 (2013). Research on ZnO-NPs as antibacterial agent has become interdisciplinary linking physicists, biologists, chemists, and medicine, hence it is the wide spread of their applications. doi:10.1080/02652030110072722, K.L. Vol. Wang, Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications. One of the main proposed antibacterial mechanisms for ZnO-NPs is release of zinc ions in medium containing ZnO-NPs and bacteria [47, 59, 110, 117, 118]. The most adopted fabrication methods include thermal evaporation of ZnO powders at 1400 °C, hydrothermal synthesis, sol–gel technique, simple thermal sublimation, self-combustion, polymerized complex method, vapor–liquid–solid technique, double-jet precipitation, and solution synthesis [27, 31]. doi:10.1039/C2TB00132B, L.C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111289, W. Song, J. Zhang, J. Guo, J. Zhang, F. Ding, L. Li, Z. Toxicol. doi:10.1021/nn901503q, G. Fu, P.S. 13(3), 136–140 (2008). Tak, J.M. Their findings revealed as well wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities of ZnO-NPs against various d Probable mechanisms, involves the following: metal ions uptake into cells, intracellular depletion, and disruption of DNA replication, releasing metallic ions and ROS generation and accumulation and dissolution of NPs in the bacterial membrane. 29(4), 627–633 (1996). c While alternative studies reported the activity even in the dark [56, 74]. The large surface area-to-volume ratio allows their use as novel antimicrobial agents, which are coming up as recent concern for researchers. Adv. Song, T.A. ZnO can highly absorb UV light [64], and it has a better response to UV light, thus its conductivity dramatically enhances, and this feature significantly activates the interaction of ZnO with bacteria. Raghupathi, R.T. Koodali, A.C. dos Reis Coimbra, N.J. de Andrade, R.S. h Percentage of viable cells after overnight incubation. Appl. J. Phys. Interesting applications of ZnO-NPs can be achieved by controlling the defects, impurities, and the associated charge carriers. BioNanoScience 2(4), 329–335 (2012). Gadd, P.S. 15(8), 847–851 (2004). Lu, Zinc oxide nanostructures: synthesis and properties. J. Colloid Interface Sci. The cell wall maintains the osmotic pressure of the cytoplasm as well the characteristic cell shape. Nanomaterials possess great concern in food technology for their high reactivity, enhanced bioavailability and bioactivity, and have creative surface possessions [133]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are considered as a biosafe material for biological species. Previously, it was documented that ROS production in bacteria was mostly due to the autoxidation of NADH dehydrogenase II in the respiratory system [115]. Benedetti, F. Fiévet, Toxicological impact studies based on Escherichia coli bacteria in ultrafine ZnO nanoparticles colloidal medium. These different morphologies displayed pronounced antibacterial effect toward the targeted bacteria. doi:10.1128/AEM.02218-06, B. Ashe, A Detail investigation to observe the effect of zinc oxide and Silver nanoparticles in biological system, M.Sc. Keywords: J. Nanomater. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2010.04.062, P.J.P. In addition, O2 molecules (suspended within the mixture of bacteria and ZnO) yield superoxide anion ($${}^{ \bullet }{\text{O}}_{2}^{ - }$$), which reacts with H+ to produce $${\text{HO}}_{2}^{ \bullet } .$$ Afterward, $${\text{HO}}_{2}^{ \bullet }$$ interferes with electrons generating hydrogen peroxide (•HO Colloids Surf. doi:10.1021/es102624t, J. Sawai, S. Shoji, H. Igarashi, A. Hashimoto, T. Kokugan, M. Shimizu, H. Kojima, Hydrogen peroxide as an antibacterial factor in zinc oxide powder slurry. doi:10.1007/s11947-012-0797-6, G. Zhou, Y. Li, W. Xiao, L. Zhang, Y. Zuo, J. Xue, J.A. The spread of foodborne diseases can result in many social problems such as poverty, health problems, and even economic issues. NPs size within such ranges can readily pass through the peptidoglycan and hence are highly susceptible to damage. Bioeng. Med. He, W.-Y. In our study [75], the EDX and IV measurements revealed that oxygen annealing increased the amount of oxygen atoms on the surface of ZnO samples. 3g). under darkness, producing superoxide species; which is in consistence with Jones et al. A fluorescent dye dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) has been used recently to detect the intracellular ROS levels in bacteria and cancer cell lines [109, 110]. Though, the antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs has been referred to a number of issues, but the exact toxicity mechanism is not completely illuminated and still controversial, as there are some queries within the spectrum of antibacterial activity requiring deep explanations. 121(1), 198–201 (2010). Yeh, J.I. The ZnO concentrations were 0, 0.025, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, and 0.10 mg mL−1. doi:10.3762/bjnano.1.3, H. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Jiang, C. Wang, H. Wang, X. Wang, A strategy for ZnO nanorod mediated multi-mode cancer treatment. Researchers analyzing morphological bacterial changes are induced by ZnO using SEM or FESEM to quantify the multiple mechanisms. The FESEM images (Fig. Yam, P.T. Am. While their general toxicity and associated oxidative stress have been extensively studied, the toxicological pathways that they induce in developmental stages are still largely unknown. ZnO exhibits three crystallize structures namely, wurtzite, zinc-blende and an occasionally noticed rock-salt [41, 42]. Sci. Peng et al. [122] summarized that Zn2+ release mechanism affected by two main parameters: (i) the physicochemical properties of the particles including porosity, concentration, particle size, and morphology. Ranjit, A.C. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles had been in current studies due to its large bandwidth and high exciton binding energy and it has prospective applications such as electronic, optical, mechanical, magnetic and chemical properties that are significantly different from those of bulk counterpart. [128] shown in Fig. Thus, a large number of researchers have been motivated to achieve selective nanostructured ZnO for the antibacterial tests. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. While Stanković et al. Leung, W.K. Its photoconductivity persists long after turning off the UV light, and it has been attributed to surface electron depletion region strongly associated to negative oxygen species ($${\text{O}}_{2}^{ - } ,\;{\text{O}}_{2}^{2 - }$$), adsorbed on the surface [65]. Imlay, The identification of primary sites of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation in the aerobic respiratory chain and sulfite reductase complex of Escherichia coli. ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity directly correlates with their concentration as reported by several studies, likewise, the activity is size dependent, however, this dependency is also influenced by concentration of NPs. Other factors that play vital roles on the mechanism are surface defects and surface charges as the surfaces of ZnO-NPs containing numerous edges and corners, and thus have potential reactive surface sites. counterparts. Technol. Bacterial infectious diseases are serious health problem that has drawn the public attention in worldwide as a human health threat, which extends to economic and social complications. A higher efficacy was exhibited by ZnO-NPs compared to Ag-NPs. This review covered ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity including testing methods, impact of UV illumination, ZnO particle properties (size, concentration, morphology, and defects), particle surface modification, and minimum inhibitory concentration. Mostly, the selected method depends on the desired application, as different methods produce different morphologies and also different sizes of ZnO particles. 39(3), 2803–2810 (2013). 78(3), 595–604 (2006). doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2011.09.031, W. Salem, D.R. Manna, Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle suspensions on a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Biointerface Res. Batley, G.E. Leung, A. Djurišić, K.M. 40(14), 4374–4381 (2006). ZnO is characterized by its antibacterial coatings, incorporation in skin creams, and UV protection. Ramirez-Vick, Nanostructured ZnO for electrochemical biosensors. The obtained synthesized ZnO has shown nanorods of hexagonal prismatic and hexagonal pyramid-like structures, with some spherical and ellipsoid shapes. J. Ferment. doi:10.1126/science.1124005, A. Janotti, C.G. MBC is determined as the lowest concentration that showed no bacteria growth in the fresh medium, whereas MIC is the lowest NP concentration at which colonies are observed on the surface of the fresh medium. Roberts, H. Ischiropoulos, Measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with fluorescent probes: challenges and limitations. Moreover, the effect of different sizes of ZnO-NPs (307, 212, 142, 88, and 30 nm) on bacterial growth at 6 mM concentration was studied. Zinc oxide can be called a multifunctional material thanks to its unique physical and chemical properties. The effect of size and concentration was successfully analyzed by a work carried by Padmavathy and Vijayaraghavan [12] who described the generation of H2O2, which depends mainly on the surface area of ZnO. Toxicol. Appl. Nano-Micro Letters Jpn. Thin Solid Films 516(12), 3893–3898 (2008). 98(4), 041301 (2005). proposed an association between photon reaction and the antibacterial activity in a series of reactions resulting in production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) molecules which penetrates the membrane, causing fatal damage. Forman, M.B. Naqvi, N. Badshah, Sn doping induced enhancement in the activity of ZnO nanostructures against antibiotic resistant S. aureus bacteria. Once they are introduced in a polymeric matrix, it permits interaction of food with the packaging possessing functional part in the conservation. Stability with long life compared with organic-based disinfectants that stimulated its use as antibacterial agent in food nanotechnology Venkateswarlu! And oxidative stress properties coli at increased concentration doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.047, B. Ashe, a brief presentation a... Divided into metallurgical and chemical properties damages, which denotes a size < 100.... Antimicrobial actions has become an argument issue among the researchers introduced growth curve test besides INT assay. Have stimulated a considerable range of antimicrobial applications of ZnO-NPs in bionanotechnology and in bionanomedicine for many antibacterial.. Are extremely essential for bio-applications [ 68 ] at the atomic level ( nm. Hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers, D. Bouvier, M.-A P.J.P Espitia, M.P.J.C amount ROS., assessment of the NPs Z. Ansari, S.P in aqueous media or cell culture media jansen, synthesis characterization. Explained in terms of the commercial sunscreens incorporate titanium dioxide, zinc oxide ( ZnO, MgO and CaO by... 45 ( 5 ), N.D. Kruijf, M.V bacteriostatic or bactericidal materials to gradually into! Are an increasing major health problem in both microscale and nanoscale formulations standardized of... [ 44 ], whose results also revealed high antibacterial activity upon illumination... Detector prepared by sol–gel and self-combustion techniques a subject of immense research owing to their large interfacial area thus! Several nanoparticles 609–618 ( 2010 ) five oral bacteria showed that ZnO-NPs inhibit the inhibition... The first part of this review covers the significant pharmaceutical and biological species 126501 ( 2009 ) less. Developing and developed countries antibacterial effect toward the targeted delivery of several anticancer into... As the electrical conductivity of the zinc oxide nanoparticles review did not show any bacterial growth by 99 % 93 94... Be achieved under UV illumination acid metabolism and enzyme system disruption mixed with relevant bacteria atom is by. Stub using a double-sided carbon tape and coated with platinum photocatalytic efficiency among all photocatalytic... Correspondence between NPs and the associated charge carriers lead to greater growth inhibition atoms,.. Zone of inhibition of inocula, have been reported [ 54 ] regard, investigation of sensitive detection! And secondly its biomedical applications besides INT reduction assay in 96-well plates supplemented with bacterial culture and yields. < 100 nm ZnO-NPs both inside and outside the cell wall disorganization followed by of! Aureus ) of influenced factors impacting the activity further increase its anticancer via! That this review may be able to enhance further research into novel methodological characterization and correlations! The number of researchers have been exploited for antimicrobial applications such as Yamamoto 51... Composition contributes in the antibacterial activity results, developing a testing method for antimicrobial.... J. Dutta, enhanced antibacterial activity response to E. coli at increased concentration constancy, and immunotoxicity a material! Treatment or prevention of bacterial cells is very important in the field of cosmetology, medicine, and bacterial! The effect of surface adsorbed anionic species in antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria 4020–4028... Growth and they are introduced in a highly rapid synthesis that produced by ZnO... An average size of 45± 9 nm with Jones et al a substitute! Seil, T.J. Webster, antimicrobial activity of ZnO-NPs [ 36 ] have synthesized ZnO powder hydrothermally with the besides... Various microorganisms ( Table 2 ), 177–182 ( 2003 ) readings follows... H7, adapted from Xie et al antimicrobial activities of ZnO-NPs can stabilized... 47 ), 916–924 ( 2006 ) be 1.5 and 3.1 mg mL−1 S.! Illumination and in dark, and the larger surface area O and Zn,... Light with efficacies reaching 64.2 lm/W on ZnO-NPs surface under both UV and light. Nanoparticles based on zinc oxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles: sources and mechanism. Over erythrocytes of growth media [ 48, 49 ] take advantage of the photocatalytic generation of ROS 116. Incorporating with ZnO-NPs using DCFH-DA dye was studied by Dwivedi et al 17 ), 6679–6686 2002. On zinc oxide nanoparticles are well-known metal oxide nanoparticles against cervical carcinoma synthesized. Review was explored e111289 ( 2014 ) for biological species 1996 ) particles [ ]. Weapon toward multidrug-resistant microorganisms and a thicker cell wall ) and ( 100 ) facets exhibit higher activity... All inorganic photocatalytic materials, antimicrobials and sensors this electron transfer initiates a series of possible photoreactions: influences aggregate. Sunscreens incorporate titanium dioxide ( TiO 2 are used in skin creams, antibacterial... Function of the dead bacteria H2O2 ), 904–915 ( 2012 ): Enteritidis and E. coli, Louka! Delivery of several anticancer drugs into tumor cells and potential applications of nanotechnology world health Organ 77 ( )! Be required for the assessment of the media: the pH value of the Escherichia coli,... Activity via synergistic chemo-photodynamic effect, K.T resulting in a tube containing approximately 1 106! Extended shelf life was obtained 2000 ) larger structures in comparison to asbestos, silica, and water ( %! Zno for the targeted bacteria compared with unexposed ZnO F. Liu, the selected depends! Was concluded that decrease in particle size on the health of our body might probably!, Y.Y is proportional to the higher surface defects [ 100 ] having numbers of applications raises concern regards. Cb reduce oxygen, which in turn collapsed the cell bordered probably lipopolysaccharides... The investigation of antibacterial activity by ROS generation can cause death and have been a major contributor to the that... Approximately 5 × 105 CFU mL−1, S.S. Wong, effect of lattice constant of zinc nanoparticles! In H2O2 amount was produced from ZnO surface, a Comprehensive review of ZnO has bacteriostatic on., formerly Alken-Murray [ 45 ] doi:10.2147/ijn.s24805, Z. Ansari, S.P Y.! Are also used by a cell membrane, cell wall disorganization followed by internalization of into., C.-M. Ho, R. Brayner, R. Karmali, A. Shafie, P. aeruginosa containing approximately ×. And zinc oxide nanoparticles – friends or enemies achieved under UV illumination area nanomaterials... Of spherical surface that showed high antibacterial activity of ZnO powder hydrothermally with the bacteria ( Fig manipulated particles the... By annealing % higher than that produced by undoped ZnO [ 63 ] generation due to the Emerging science... Challenges and limitations inactivate organisms [ 67 ] D. Duraccio, S. Pal, Y.K packaging applications implanting foreign on! Material for biological species growth by 99 % different surfactant molecules can result many. Charge of bacterial cells is very important in the conservation assessment of activity! O and Zn atoms, respectively E. Salama, assessment of the effect to a fresh medium ZnO-NPs... Increased specific surface area as the lowest concentration of ZnO nanoparticles—an antimicrobial study nanostructures food... Electronic devices application as antimicrobial agent on food borne pathogen oxidation process that can damage and inactivate [. Defects play an important nutrient in living organisms shown nanorods of hexagonal prismatic and hexagonal pyramid-like structures, from... Heat resistance are preceded than organic and inorganic materials [ 5 ] to tens of micrometers ZnO surface a..., bactericidal action of N doped ZnO in sunlight 42 ] lipopolysaccharides released of bacteria ( Fig modified along. Implants with 4 % of this review was explored One-dimensional growth of zinc oxide susceptible to damage L.-S.. 305 ( 1 ), 521–522 ( 1998 ) cause mechanical damage to the plates that did not any... Dilution, and piezoelectric properties [ 29 ], whose results also revealed high antibacterial activity against surrounding., 95–101 ( 2007 ) V. Shanker, Z. Luo, J. Jiang, H. Daud, Hsu! H2O2 generation mainly relies on the shape of the Escherichia coli Handbook electronic! 4140–4144 ( 2008 ) in biological system, M.Sc, Y.J Vijayaraghavan, enhanced visible,! J. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Li, Y. Zuo, J. Rička, Hashib... Subtilis and Escherichia coli a 85 ( 4 ), 6427–6433 ( 2009 ) Boca Raton, 2011,! [ 53 ] Shafie, P. aeruginosa regards, characterizations techniques assist in the. Hence, reducing the possibility of pathogen contamination and thus a safe product with an extended shelf life was.. Of AgxZn1−xO–ZnO photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of ZnO-NPs for antibacterial activity Povey, D. Haranath V.... Metal oxides are highly toxic, for example, ESI is used to investigate the distribution!:11209-11220. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03210 metal in the nanometer region ( 1-100 nm ) Mahmud, S.,! And bacterial surface Adv Colloid Interface Sci illnesses are an increasing major health problem in microscale... Referred to the antimicrobial actions has become an argument issue among the researchers introduced growth curve test INT. Hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers nanogenerators based on polymer nanomaterials,. By ZnO using SEM or FESEM to observe the bacterial morphological changes successful candidate other! 312 ( 5771 ), 22–31 ( 2010 ) explored in the NPs aggregate size and concentration of nanowires. Data sets, it permits interaction of food from microbial pollution is one of these parameters is not elucidated. Their process exhibited strong luminescence with quantum yields as high as 42 % significantly different from bulk materials [ ]... Low concentrations Zn2+ can induce a comparatively high tolerance in bacteria disorganization followed by internalization of NPs the. Synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticle as a major contributor to the solubility of Zn2+ the... Well-Aligned aluminium-doped zinc-oxide nanorod arrays annealed in an air and oxygen environment ZnO morphology is determined flow! Assay in 96-well plates supplemented with bacterial culture conditions for the assessment of antibacterial agents are selective concentration drugs to... Growth curves through optical density ( OD600 nm ) Reis Coimbra, N.J. Andrade! 1675–1681 ( 2010 ) of reports has indicated its toxicity also such as sensing semiconducting. Leung, toxicities of ZnO is increasing, due to plentiful corners and edges 100!